The Catholic Institute

Resources to help in your study

Study Guides
Refer to the following website for assistance in range of topics relating to study and presentation of assignments.
Referencing guidelines
TCI uses the American Psychological Association (APA) system of citing and referencing the various sources you have used in your assessment tasks, i.e., books, articles, electronic resources, etc. (See the Student Manual for guidelines.) The process may seem onerous and tedious but every punctuation mark used is very important. Basically there are two types of acknowledgement: in text and in the reference list at the end of your work.
In text citations
These identify the author, publication date and page of the ideas you have used in your work. For example, you may have read something in an article by Francis Brown on the use of silence within the liturgy and want to paraphrase it. You would write it like this:

According to Brown (2008, p. 9) there are four main reasons for silence during the normal Sunday liturgy… 

Here is an example of what to do if you want to use the exact words of an author:

Unfortunately some liturgy committees seem to fear silence. Silence is an essential aspect of liturgical prayer. However, it is poorly understood. It is not a time for those present to engage in private devotion un-distracted by the liturgical action. Rather silence enables the gathered community to be brought more completely into the mystery of Christ’s presence. (Brown, 1998, p. 89)

Note that, because it is a long quote (more than three lines), it is indented, does not have quotations marks and ends with a full stop followed by the bracketed details.

For a short quote, you use quotation marks around the actual quote and include it as you would a paraphrase. For example: Brown (2008) argues that ‘silence is essential for full engagement in any liturgy’ (p. 35).

Note that you put the page number at the end of the quote in brackets and that the full stop comes after the bracketed number.

Reference list
This is a list (titled References) of all sources cited in your assessment task. The list must be on a separate page at the end of your work. It is in alphabetical order and contains the complete publication details of all of the sources.

The bibliography at the end of your Module Book has examples of full publication details. For example:

Bowe, B. E. (2003). Biblical foundations of spirituality: Touching a finger to the flame. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Bryant, K. (2002). Called to holiness in baptism. In All for love: A discernment journal (pp. 40-44). Little River, South Carolina: NCDVD.

Cody, P. (2004). Seeds of the word: Nga kakano o te kupu. Wellington: Steele Roberts.

Conn, J. W. (1987). Spirituality. In J. Komanchak, M. Collins & D. Lane (Eds.), The new dictionary of theology (pp. 972-981). Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.

New Zealand Bishop's Conference. (1997). A guide to gender inclusive language in the Catholic Church. Retrieved 19 June 2015, from